International Journal of Thyroidology

Indexed in /covered by CAS, KoreaScience & DOI/Crossref:eISSN 2466-1899   pISSN 2384-3799

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Milestones on extent of thyroidectomy

Year
Author
Institution
Periods
Enrolled patients
Point
1913
Halsted
1902-190339 Graves’ disease ITA ligation during operation in Graves’ patients.
Then definite surgery after 2-4 weeks later (interval completion total thyroidectomy).
1953
I. Macdonald
23 patients Total thyroidectomy is mandatory due to 13% contralateral, 13% lateral metastasis, and overall 43% (10/23) extrathyroidal extension.
1959
R. Clark
MD Anderson
1941-1958 324 patients Total thyroidectomy was recommended due to 54% of glandular dissemination. Complication rate in this study was 34% tetany and 12.5% permanent hypoparathyroidism.
1963
R. Rose
1st ultrasonography on neck, 1963 Holmes 61.7% (21/34) contralateral cancer was detected in prophylactic total thyroidectomy after formal lobectomy.
24.4% recurrence in 19 years in lobectomy patients.
1998
Hay
Mayo
1940-1991
1685/1798 patients were grouped into AMES low risk
Total thyroidectomy was recommended even in low-risk PTC, due to high risk of locoregional recurrence. But there was no difference in mortality during 54 years (mean 18 years).
2000,
Kebebew, Duh, Clark, UCSF
Low risk DTC Lobectomy rather than total thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer patients if higher complication rate expected.
2005
Machens
366 PTCs
134 TFCs
Earlier intervention is warranted to keep suspicious thyroid nodules from growing above 2 cm. Completion or reoperation rate was 66% in PTC and 78% of TFC
2007
Bilimoria
1985-1998
51173 NCDB
All (PTMC 20%)
1st study proved TT improves oncologic outcomes in PTC ≥1.0 cm
2010
Mendelsohn
1988-2001
22724 SEER DB
All (PTMC 28%)
Controlling for tumor size, no survival difference TT vs. TL: increased tumor size, extrathyroidal extent, positive nodal status, and increased age displayed significantly worse DSS and OS (P.001). 4 cm
2018
SMC
1996-2005
3174
All, 1-4 cm (48.5%)
Gross ETE invading only strap muscles affected on long term recurrence, but not on mortality.
2019
AMC
Song
1998-2007
2345
1-4 cm patients
Lobectomy as initial surgical approach.
Tumor size should not be an absolute indication for TT.
Recur rate (lobectomy 6.3%, TT 4.7%, 9.8 years).
2020
Nishino & Jacob
Problems of T3b and 8th edition of TNM stage.
Gross suspicion of ETE into strap muscles (T3b) should be confirmed by microscopic examination.
2020
Severance
1973-2018
19914 SEER DB
17837 ≤4 cm
Strap muscle invasion did not significantly impact DSS.
Regardless of tumor size or cause of death.
2020
Suman
2004-2014
8083/38490 NCDB
TL 6531
iTL 1552
Substantial number (19.2%) with tumor size above 1 cm and high-risk features undergo thyroid lobectomy for PTC. Exclusion of high-risk features is important.

CND: central neck dissection, Cx: complication, DSS: disease specific survival, DTC: differentiated thyroid cancer, ETE: extrathyroidal extension, hypoPTH: hypoparathyroidism, ITA: inferior thyroid artery, iTL: inappropriate thyroid lobectomy, LND: lateral neck dissection, NCDB: National Cancer Database, OS: overall survival, PTC: papillary thyroid cancer, PTMC: papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, SEER DB: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database, STT: subtotal thyroidectomy, TL: appropriate thyroid lobectomy, TT: total thyroidectomy

Int J Thyroidol 2021;14:73-80 https://doi.org/10.11106/ijt.2021.14.2.73
© 2021 Int J Thyroidol