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Cancer Immunotherapy Related Endocrine Adverse Effects
Int J Thyroidol 2019;12(2):97-104
Published online November 30, 2019;
© 2019 Korean Thyroid Association.

Hana Kim1, Sun Wook Cho1,2 and Young Joo Park1,2

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital1, Seoul National University College of Medicine2, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Young Joo Park, MD, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea
Tel: 82-2-2072-4183, Fax: 82-2-764-2199, E-mail:
Received July 30, 2019; Revised October 10, 2019; Accepted October 10, 2019.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapy for a wide variety of tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors including anti cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies have proven to be especially effective in various advanced cancers. However, cancer the immunotherapy disturbs the immune system and may also cause immune related side effects (IRAE) distinguished from cytotoxic chemotherapy toxicity. Among them, endocrine IRAE has been reported with a higher incidence than other organ IRAE. We focus on the most relevant and new aspects related to endocrine IRAE due to cancer immunotherapy in this review.
Keywords : Programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1), Programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, Immune related adverse effect (IRAE)

November 2019, 12 (2)