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Surgical Treatment in Locally Advanced Thyroid Cancer – Trachea, Larynx, Esophagus Invasion Management
Int J Thyroidol 2018;11(2):99-108
Published online November 30, 2018;
© 2018 Korean Thyroid Association.

Guk Haeng Lee and Ju Yong Kang

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, KIRAMS, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Guk Haeng Lee, MD, PhD, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, KIRAMS, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01812, Korea
Tel: 82-2-970-1272, Fax: 82-2-970-2450, E-mail:
Received September 10, 2018; Accepted October 19, 2018.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Most thyroid cancers are well-differentiated cancers and have a very good prognosis. About 10% of thyroid cancer, however, invades the surrounding tissues, causing local recurrence and distant metastasis, and eventually affecting survival rate. In locally advanced thyroid cancers, the invasion of trachea, larynx and esophagus, can be occurred by primary tumor and may also result in lymph nodes metastasis. Surgical resection is still mainstay for the treatment of locally advanced thyroid cancer. The main purpose of the surgical resection is to eliminate the cancer completely, therefore, it can cause many complications such as dysfunction of the larynx, trachea and esophagus. It can have a serious effect on the quality of life, therefore there is still controversy on the extent of the surgery. The authors compare and analyze the opinions which were already discussed in the literatures published so far. These will help to select the surgical method.
Keywords : Locally advanced thyroid cancer, Larynx, Trachea, Esophagus

November 2018, 11 (2)